Negotiating with Undeclared Emergency
Last month, Hyderabad police registered a case against Prof. Kancha Ilaiah for writing an article in a Telugu daily, entitled ‘Is God not a democrat’? The article questioned inequality in society and discussed the concept of god. For doing so the professor was reproached for insulting sentiments of a community and charged them for promoting enmity between different religious groups under section 153 (A) and 295 (A) of Indian Penal Code.
This is an example of hundreds of incidents that take place in different parts of the country revealing absurdity to which a law in India could be interpreted and applied to target an individual or civil society organisation (CSO) holding a dissimilar view on an issue or advocating a different narrative of history and society.
Last week, Prof. Mahesh Chandra Guru of Mysore University was charged for insulting Prime Minister Modi, Human Resource Development Minister Smriti Irani and god Rama on two different occasions. The professor was arrested when he appeared before a Mysore district court in the second case when his bail application was rejected and he was sent to jail (Hindustan Times, 21 June, 2016).
Though the previous governments have not been admirers of civil liberties in anyways, the present administration seems to have a condescending view of them. According to a US-based democracy advocacy group, Freedom House’s 2015 report, after the 2014 elections, at least 18 people were arrested and questioned for anti-Modi posts on online forums such as Twitter and Facebook.
Arundhati Roy has rightly said that one is unable to say things that Dr. Ambedkar could say in 1936 as one risks being put into jail (Janta ka reporter, 31 May 2016). It is apparent that there is an atmosphere of fear, where journalists, writers, artists, intellectuals feel defenceless and dispensable leading to engaging in what Human Rights Watch terms ‘self-censorship’ (Human Rights Watch Report release press statement, 24May, 2016).
At the same time, the government is not secretive about its resolve to suffocate and persecute the CSOs that oppose its ideology, policies or actions. The suspension and cancellation of license of Sabrang Trust and Lawyers Collective to receive foreign funding is in line with the series of actions against those CSOs that the government considers opposed to it. Earlier, organisations like INSAF, People’s Watch and Green Peace have also experienced similar actions based on deliberate misinterpretation of vague terms such as ‘political activity’ and ‘public interest’ under the Foreign Contributions (Regulation) Act, 2010.
It is ironic that while the Prime Minister goes around the world soliciting foreign funding for country’s economic development, his home ministry ensures that select civil society organisations are prevented from receiving foreign funding which is critical to assisting millions of Indians in pursuing their legal, cultural and social development. Besides, as the UN repertoire on human rights noted that the ability to access foreign funding is vital to human rights work and is an integral part of the right to freedom of association (The Wire, 17 June 2016).
Apart from a direct attack on individuals and organizations, a more sinister ‘hunt’ (social) movement of conformity by coercion is in operation under the broad banner of Hindutava with scores of its regional organizational varieties mushrooming in the country. The Hindu right organizations are using what the peace activist Scilla Elworthy describes political and physical violence to intimidate and emotional and mental violence to undermine. One of such organisations have allegedly killed writers and intellectuals such as Dr Dabholkar, Dr Panasare and Prof Kalburgi for holding views on religion that displeased certain Hindu fanatics (The Indian Express, 22 June 2016).
The present administration has forced withdrawal of some history books (Wendy Doniger’s, The Hindus: An Alternative History) and is busy rewriting history in other parts where it can (Christophe Jaffrelot, The Indian Express,7 June 2016). Meanwhile a process is on to saffronise education as indicated by the union minister of education’s veiled statement that saffronisation of education would take place as (if) it is good for the country (The Indian Express, 20 June, 2016). It is a blinkered understanding of contemporary history and politics as Talibanisation and Islamisation of education in Afghanistan and Pakistan has not done any good to those countries.
The challenge before the civil society today is to confront this saffron mindset replacing secular values embedded in Indian history, culture and constitution. This might be easier when there are alliances across movements and groups and sharing of experiences of constructive and non-violent methods to assert democratic rights by engaging and organising people through education. In the words of investigative journalist Will Potter, like sunlight education is an activist’s best weapon. (Will Potter, Ted.com).